In an earlier post, I discussed some key benefits of cloud-based services, or Software as a Service (SaaS). While the benefits are significant, there are risks that must be considered when making decisions about SaaS.
To approach these risks and some of the questions prospective users of cloud-based services might ask, it is easiest to break the risks down into categories. In today’s post, I’ll take a look at two key questions potential SaaS users might have about data access control and protection:
- How can data be kept safe from unauthorized access? Whether a cloud-based service is used for student information systems (SIS), instructional improvement systems (IIS), data warehousing or more than one, ensuring the protection of sensitive student data is taken seriously by educators and the vendors providing these services. Effective implementation of security measures in the following areas provides protection for externally-stored student data on par with the security achieved by housing data on internal servers:
- Security Hardware: Security hardware includes firewalls that filter network traffic to (and from) application and data servers and inspect each packet for a threat, dropping traffic when a threat is present. Another effective type of security hardware is load balancers or cache engines that offload direct access to application servers and prevent operating system exploits.
- Security Software: The baseline of any effective secure software environment includes up-to-date operating systems on all application and data servers. Microsoft revealed in the first half of 2011, less than one percent of the exploits discovered took advantage of a “zero day vulnerability” (one that had not yet been patched by the vendor). This means over 99 percent of the attacks were preventable merely by maintaining well-patched operating systems and software. Also falling in the category of security software is the antivirus and computer security software suite. Finally, effective use of change management software can help SaaS Information Technology (IT) staff informed about any attempts to alter the application server environment without their knowledge.
- Secure Network Architecture: A well-designed network for any application-hosting environment includes segregation of application and data servers. This can be achieved by physically segmenting traffic or using a combination of segmentation and security hardware.
- Data Encryption: Encrypting the transport of data from the service vendor to the client system is critical. The current best practice for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), Transport Level Security (TLS) is to employ a minimum of 128-bit encryption.
- Physical Security: An easily overlooked security concern is the physical environment of the service provider. Are application and data servers housed within a secure environment, and is access to the environment regulated by the vendor? Physical controls include personnel monitoring, multi-factor access authentication, external monitoring and other types of surveillance.
- Hierarchical - Such as the user account structure employed by Galileo Online IIS. Users are allowed access to increasing levels of information dependent upon the scope of the user account.
- Access-based - A flatter model such as that employed by Google Documents. Discrete permissions are assigned to individual data objects on a per-user, or per-group, basis.
User privileges can be managed effectively and in some cases there is even benefit to a separate permissions structure because individual changes can be managed by the users of the system instead of having to rely on technical staff to implement changes.
Do you have other concerns about data access protection that haven’t been covered? In a future post I’ll consider another risk area presented by use of cloud-based services and address how vendors are overcoming those challenges to create safe, effective environments for their clients.