Monday, July 18, 2016

High School Science- Physics or Chemistry?

by Michelle Ross

School districts often inquire about High School physics and chemistry items in Galileo. Our item bank currently contains over 3,400 High School physics and chemistry items combined, including selected response, open response, and a variety of technology-enhanced items; and this number is steadily growing. However, the organization of state standards can make locating the necessary assessment items challenging. This is because some states do not explicitly distinguish between physics and chemistry in their standards. Instead the subjects are merged together as “physical science.” Indeed there is notable overlap in what topics are typically covered in High School physics and chemistry, and there is variation in what particular topics are covered from one physics (or chemistry) course to another. However, the obstacle for teachers in states that merge physics and chemistry is that district assessment coordinators creating blueprints for Galileo K-12 benchmark exams may not know exactly which standards in a physical science scale are appropriate for physics assessment versus chemistry assessment.

Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, and the Next Generation Science Standards all merge their High School physics and chemistry standards together. Below, the Arizona High School physical science standards are color-coded to provide guidance as to how these standards may typically be covered within High School physics and chemistry courses. Other states’ standards are likewise color-coded in attached documents.

Note that input from instructors teaching these subjects may be required to further specify the precise set of standards addressed in a particular course.  

Green indicates a chemistry topic.
Blue indicates a physics topic.
Yellow indicates topics that may be taught in either or both physics and chemistry.

65. SHS-S5C1-01 Describe substances based on their physical properties.
66. SHS-S5C1-02 Describe substances based on their chemical properties.
67. SHS-S5C1-03 Predict properties of elements and compounds using trends of the periodic table (e.g., metals, non-metals, bonding – ionic/covalent).
68. SHS-S5C1-04 Separate mixtures of substances based on their physical properties.
69. SHS-S5C1-05 Describe the properties of electric charge and the conservation of electric charge.
70. SHS-S5C1-06 Describe the following features and components of the atom: protons; neutrons; electrons; mass; number and type of particles; structure; organization.
71. SHS-S5C1-07 Describe the historical development of models of the atom.
72. SHS-S5C1-08 Explain the details of atomic structure (e.g., electron configuration, energy levels, isotopes).
73. SHS-S5C2-01 Determine the rate of change of a quantity (e.g., rate of erosion, rate of reaction, rate of growth, velocity).
74. SHS-S5C2-02 Analyze the relationships among position, velocity, acceleration, and time: graphically; mathematically.
75. SHS-S5C2-03 Explain how Newton’s 1st Law applies to objects at rest or moving at constant velocity.
76. SHS-S5C2-04 Using Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion, analyze the relationships among the net force acting on a body, the mass of the body, and the resulting acceleration: graphically; mathematically.
77. SHS-S5C2-05 Use Newton’s 3rd Law to explain forces as interactions between bodies (e.g., a table pushing up on a vase that is pushing down on it; an athlete pushing on a basketball as the ball pushes back on her).
78. SHS-S5C2-06 Analyze the two-dimensional motion of objects by using vectors and their components.
79. SHS-S5C2-07 Give an example that shows the independence of the horizontal and vertical components of projectile motion.
80. SHS-S5C2-08 Analyze the general relationships among force, acceleration, and motion for an object undergoing uniform circular motion.
81. SHS-S5C2-09 Represent the force conditions required to maintain static equilibrium.
82. SHS-S5C2-10 Describe the nature and magnitude of frictional forces.
83. SHS-S5C2-11 Using the Law of Universal Gravitation, predict how the gravitational force will change when the distance between two masses changes or the mass of one of them changes.
84. SHS-S5C2-12 Using Coulomb’s Law, predict how the electrical force will change when the distance between two point charges changes or the charge of one of them changes.
85. SHS-S5C2-13 Analyze the impulse required to produce a change in momentum.
86. SHS-S5C2-14 Quantify interactions between objects to show that the total momentum is conserved in both collision and recoil situations.
87. SHS-S5C3-01 Describe the following ways in which energy is stored in a system: mechanical; electrical; chemical; nuclear.
88. SHS-S5C3-02 Describe various ways in which energy is transferred from one system to another (e.g., mechanical contact, thermal conduction, electromagnetic radiation.)
89. SHS-S5C3-03 Recognize that energy is conserved in a closed system.
90. SHS-S5C3-04 Calculate quantitative relationships associated with the conservation of energy.
91. SHS-S5C3-05 Analyze the relationship between energy transfer and disorder in the universe (2nd Law of Thermodynamics).
92. SHS-S5C3-06 Distinguish between heat and temperature.
93. SHS-S5C3-07 Explain how molecular motion is related to temperature and phase changes.
94. SHS-S5C4-01 Apply the law of conservation of matter to changes in a system.
95. SHS-S5C4-02 Identify the indicators of chemical change, including formation of a precipitate, evolution of a gas, color change, absorption or release of heat energy.
96. SHS-S5C4-03 Represent a chemical reaction by using a balanced equation.
97. SHS-S5C4-04 Distinguish among the types of bonds (i.e., ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen bonding).
98. SHS-S5C4-05 Describe the mole concept and its relationship to Avogadro’s number.
99. SHS-S5C4-06 Solve problems involving such quantities as moles, mass, molecules, volume of a gas, and molarity using the mole concept and Avogadro’s number.
100. SHS-S5C4-07 Predict the properties (e.g., melting point, boiling point, conductivity) of substances based upon bond type.
101. SHS-S5C4-08 Quantify the relationships between reactants and products in chemical reactions (e.g., stoichiometry, equilibrium, energy transfers).
102. SHS-S5C4-09 Predict the products of a chemical reaction using types of reactions (e.g., synthesis, decomposition, replacement, combustion).
103. SHS-S5C4-10 Explain the energy transfers within chemical reactions using the law of conservation of energy.
104. SHS-S5C4-11 Predict the effect of various factors (e.g., temperature, concentration, pressure, catalyst) on the equilibrium state and on the rates of chemical reaction.
105. SHS-S5C4-12 Compare the nature, behavior, concentration, and strengths of acids and bases.
106. SHS-S5C4-13 Determine the transfer of electrons in oxidation/reduction reactions.
107. SHS-S5C5-01 Describe various ways in which matter and energy interact (e.g., photosynthesis, phase change).
108. SHS-S5C5-02 Describe the following characteristics of waves: wavelength; frequency; period; amplitude.
109. SHS-S5C5-03 Quantify the relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and the speed of light.
110. SHS-S5C5-04 Describe the basic assumptions of kinetic molecular theory.
111. SHS-S5C5-05 Apply kinetic molecular theory to the behavior of matter (e.g., gas laws).
112. SHS-S5C5-06 Analyze calorimetric measurements in simple systems and the energy involved in changes of state.
113. SHS-S5C5-07 Explain the relationship between the wavelength of light absorbed or released by an atom or molecule and the transfer of a discrete amount of energy.
114. SHS-S5C5-08 Describe the relationship among electric potential, current, and resistance in an ohmic system.
115. SHS-S5C5-09 Quantify the relationships among electric potential, current, and resistance in an ohmic system.

No comments: